Laws and Regulations

Business Laws
Law No. 94 of 2005 aims to unify the legal rules of companies and establish a link between the Company Law and the Investment Law, setting simple procedures for company foundation as well as land and real estate ownership. Companies founded under the Companies Law will have access to privileges granted by the Investment Law. The amendment is meant to balance these two laws on one hand with the provisions of the new tax law on the other, especially as they relate to tax exemptions
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1/6/2009Overview A commercial agent is defined under the Commercial Agency Law No. 120 of 1982 (and the Ministry of Economy’s Decision No. 342 of 1982) as a natural person or legal entity carrying out the business of submitting tenders or concluding purchase, sale or lease contracts on behalf of and for the account of producers, manufacturers or distributors. Such a person or entity must be recorded on the register for commercial agents maintained at the Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade.
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1/6/2009The new Income Tax Law No. 91 of 2005 drastically amended the previous income tax rules in Egypt. Law 91 introduced a 50 per cent reduction in personal and corporate taxes, to a maximum rate of 20 per cent, and abolished all the income tax exemptions stipulated in Investment Law No. 8 of 1997 in relation to establishments that are incorporated after the law’s entry into force (i.e. unified tax exemptions and legislation).
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The Egyptian labor market is regulated by the new unified Labor Law No. 12 of 2003. The new law comprises 257 articles that address all the legal aspects of the Egyptian labor market. The new law aims at increasing private sector involvement and at the same time achieving a balance between employees' and employers' rights. [1] [1] A detailed review of the different aspects of the Labor Law is provided in section “6.2. Labor Legislation”.
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The People's Assembly approved the new Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Law No. 82 in May 2002. The new law is intended to bring Egypt's legal IPR regime into line with its obligations under the WTO Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. This new IPR law is intended to create an environment that will encourage creativity and boost much-needed foreign direct investment. The new IPR law, comprised of 205 articles, unifies and supersedes existing intellectual property rights laws. It has four sections: trademarks, copyrights, patents and new plant varieties.
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Concern for the environment has been growing in recent years, both in the government and among the Egyptian public, thanks to a new awareness of the importance of natural resources as well as a desire to protect the welfare of the Egyptian people. Environmental Law No. 4 of 1994 reflects this growing trend. The law grants incentives to those who implement environmental protection activities or projects and enforces penalties against those who violate its provisions
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1/6/2009Overview The process of registration, whether for agents or companies, is governed by the Commercial Register Law No. 34 of 1976 and its amendments (No. 98 of 1996). The basic rule is that anyone engaged in commercial activity must register in the Commercial Register.
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Law1/6/2009In May 2002, Parliament approved the Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Law No. 83 of 2002, which provided for the establishment of special zones for industrial, agricultural or service activities designed specifically with the export market in mind. The law allows firms operating in these zones to import capital equipment, raw materials and intermediate goods duty-free. Companies established in the new zones will also be subject to lower corporate taxes and exempt from sales and indirect taxes. They will also operate under more flexible labor regulations and enjoy other incentives. The law’s executive regulations were issued in September 2002. Currently, one special economic zone is operational in the North West Gulf of Suez; it is managed by the General Authority for the Special Economic Zone North West Gulf of Suez.
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The ownership of land by foreigners is governed by three laws: Law No. 15 of 1963, Law No. 143 of 1981, and Law No. 230 of 1996.
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Overview Investment Law No. 8 of 1997 (which cancelled Law 230 of 1989) is a combination of incentives, customs exemptions and many new investor protections and guarantees. Investment Law No. 8 of 1997 and Companies Law No. 159 of 1981 and their amendments are two key laws that regulate the investment environment in Egypt.
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Overview Investors operating in sectors not covered by the Investment Law are covered by Companies Law No. 159 of 1981. Unlike the Investment Law, the Companies Law is not focused on incentives, privileges and guarantees; its provisions are therefore less favorable than the ones contained in the Investment Law. The investor can establish his project either under the Investment Law or under the Companies Law; in both cases GAFI will be the governmental body responsible for project approval and licensing.
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